Indonesia has taken many different but effective approaches to improve the educational standards of the country, especially since the country became a democracy in 1998. In 2002, Indonesia made it a constitutional requirement that governments at all levels must allocate at least 20% of their budgets to the financing of education. This was an obvious improvement from previous years; in 1995, spending on education totaled less than 1% of Indonesia’s GDP. This improvement is reflected in the country’s literacy rates of 95.4% among the general population and 99% among its youth. In general, education and culture surrounding education in Indonesia is better now than it has ever been.