The climate of a location or region is affected by its latitude, altitude, terrain, and nearby water bodies and their currents. There is variation in climate across different parts of the world. These variations are mostly due to natural processes or external factors such as persistent changes to the atmosphere or changes in land use.
Taking a closer look at Indonesia’s climate, the main variable is neither temperature nor air pressure, but rainfall. There are extreme variations in rainfall, especially when comparing the dry season (June to September) to the rainy season (November to March). Indonesia’s climate is mostly tropical and temperature does not vary much from season to season. It should be noted, however, that climate is not temperature. Climate is an entity on its own while temperature is a variable of climate; other variables include humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility and, wind.
There are three different climates that can be found in Indonesia. The primary climate in Indonesia is tropical rainforest, which has the highest level of precipitation, followed by tropical monsoon and tropical savanna which have lower levels of precipitation. The western and northern parts of Indonesia have the most precipitation.
Elevation has a major impact on the climate. As elevation increases, pressure decreases. As pressure decreases, air molecules spread out further leading to a decline in temperature. The lowest point in Indonesia is in southern portion of the Philippine Trench, east of Miangas. It is 9,125 meters below sea level. The highest point in Indonesia is Puncak Jaya at 4,884 meters above sea level. Indonesia has a mean elevation of 367 meters above sea level.