How Urbanization Has Impacted Indonesia
Indonesia’s rate of urbanization has been growing at an impressive rate. It has a population of approximately 263 million people, and out of this population, around 55% reside in urban areas. According to official statistics, Indonesia’s rate of urbanization is more rapid than those of both China and India. With a constant increase of around 2.5% every year in the number of individuals living in urban areas, it is projected that the number of people living in urban areas will account for around 70% of the total population at some point during the next 10 years.
Indonesian urbanization has led to economic growth. The country’s gross domestic product (GDP) has been growing steadily every year, and this growth in GDP has been driven by the positive effects of urbanization. Urbanization has also led to the improvement of infrastructure. When a large number of people move into urban areas, they bring with them much money which will enable the authorities to improve the infrastructure and offer services to the residents. Generally, urbanization in Indonesia has helped in improving the quality of life because services such as health and education have been improved.
However, the increase in urban population in Indonesia has also negatively impacted the country. The increase in the number of people living in a smaller area has thus caused the population density of many of Indonesia’s cities to increase. This leads to more pressure being placed upon the infrastructure of the cities which in turn might reduce the quality of services being provided.
The growth in population in Indonesia’s cities which has been caused by urbanization has also led to pollution in the environment. There are many toxic gases which are emitted from both private and public transport systems which have damaged the air quality of many of Indonesia’s urban areas. Furthermore, some who have left rural areas and moved to urban centres with hopes of improving their lifestyle might never see these hopes come to fruition. As a result, some of these people turn to acts of crime because they are unable to make an honest living in the city.
Thus, urbanization has both negative and positive effects in any country. However, when migration to urban areas is not proportional to the country’s economic growth, it implies that the standard of living in the country is not increasing, thus bringing about a host of other problems.
Evidences of Urban Development in Indonesia
Development of Slums
According to the United Nations, around a quarter of the world’s total urban population live in slums. Slums are defined as areas with inadequate housing, public services, and sanitation. The Indonesian government has been attempting to upgrade the lifestyles of those inhabiting slums. The Kampung Improvement program has worked to improve the lives of those living in slums by providing high-quality roads, health services, clean water, and sanitation. Such improvements also have the short-term effect of increasing the land prices of the area.
The National Urban Development Project (NUDP)
The NUDP was instituted by the Indonesian government in order to integrate its sectoral and strategic plans. The plans that the country intends to put in place include economic strategies for urban areas, plans for transportation systems, housing plans, and environmental strategies. The NUDP has also helped Indonesia’s cities to make better and more informed investments as well as have access to sources of financing.