Being the largest economy in the South East Asia and one of the emerging economies in the world, Indonesia had received popular attractions for foreign investors all around the world. In 2019, its overall score has increased by 1.6 points, with sharp increases in business freedom, investment freedom, and judicial effectiveness outpacing declines in monetary freedom and labor freedom. In this article, you would be able to gather sufficient information as to what are the companies in Indonesia that receive the most foreign investment.

Foreign Owned Company (PT PMA)

A foreign owned company is also known as Perseroan Terbatas Penananam Modal Asing (PT PMA) in Bahasa Indonesia. In Indonesia, a PT PMA company is considered to be a Limited Liability Company. Besides that, this type of company can either be 100% foreign-owned or it can also be established by through a joint venture with Indonesian partners subject to the Negative Investment List (Daftar Negatif Investasi (DNI)) as it will stipulate as to what business sectors would be open to foreign investments in Indonesia as well as the percentage of foreign ownership permitted upon that business sectors.

The following are the brief requirements on what is required to form a PT PMA company successfully in Indonesia:

Capital Requirement 

  • IDR 10 billion (USD 750,000.00) 

Minimum Paid-up Capital 

  • IDR 10 billion (USD 750,000.00)


  • Minimum 2 shareholders: Can be 1 foreigner or 2 foreigners

Negative Investment List 

  • This list is compiled by the Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM). It stipulates which sectors are open for foreign business investment in Indonesia and the percentage of ownership permitted.
  • Do note that it is compulsory to comply with every foreign investor who intends to open a PT PMA company in Indonesia.

Representative Office (KPPA)

A KPPA office in Indonesia is also known as Kantor Perwakilan Perusahaan Asing. A KPPA office in Indonesia allows you to create a market presence in Indonesia and similar to PT PMA, it is usually set up for management reasons. The roles of a KPPA office in Indonesia is limited to managing, coordinating, supervising, liaising, and representing the main company.>

The following are the steps required to form a KPPA office successfully in Indonesia:

  1. Appoint a business representative.
  2. Collect all necessary documents such as:
  3. A letter of reference.
  4. A notarized letter of appointment.
  5. A resume and work permit of the company’s representative.
  6. A notarized letter of intent.

Differences between Foreign Owned Company and Representative Office

Foreign Owned CompanyRepresentative Office
Allowed ActivitiesAll business activities related to the sector it is engaged in and received approval for from BKPMOnly for market research & local representation
Minimum Capital
  • IDR 10 billion (USD 750,000.00)
  • Paid-up Capital at least IDR 2.5 billion (~USD 175,000.00)
No requirement
BenefitsOperates as an independent limited liability company within the business classificationNo capital requirement,

Takes less time to establish

Suitable ForCompanies that want to engage in commercial activities in IndonesiaCompanies that want to engage in market research, networking, etc. It is strictly forbidden to generate profit and revenue or engage in sales directly
ComplianceMonthly withholding tax report, quarterly/semi-annual investment reportMonthly withholding tax report, annual activity report to the BKPM
DisadvantagesLarge capital requirement
  • Cannot engage in commercial activities,
  • Valid for a maximum period of 5 years
Issuing Work Permits and Visas for ForeignersAll shareholders, directors and commissioners eligible for work permit, unlimited amount of business visa sponsorships, work permits can be issued to foreign expertsWork permit for the chief representative, unlimited business visa sponsorships, 3 Indonesians for every expat hired
Foreign Ownership RestrictionForeign ownership varies between 0% – 100% depending on the Negative Investment ListNo restriction
Estimated CostsUSD 3700USD 1200
Time Taken to Establish23 days13 days